Before starting of with this get well educated with some electronic components though much detail is not needed , u can do most of the work using data sheet of the electronic components.
2)op amp and comparator
resistors ,capacitors , transistors wuld also come along with this thing
When u make an autonoums robots the basic thing needed wuld be
1)Brain (microcontroller,logic gates)
3)Hands and Legs(Motors, Wheels)
so u r sensors take care of the surroundings, send the feed back to microcontrollers r logic gates
n then the output to the motors to do the desired things
so i will be covering up all this thing in parallel both electronic parts and the sensors , microcontrollers, then giving the motion to wheels in the order as told above.
Hope u all will like it .